De Staart, West 8: IABR–Atelier Dordrecht

The case of De Staart in Dordrecht is used withing RDD as example how – through – design floodrisk management and urban development can be brought together.

 

De Staart is located outside the dikes but due to its industrial function it was raised relatively high. It is besides an industrial area also residential, which is partly on a former poison belt. This creates an ambivalent living environment. On the one hand, it is a district with lots of nature and beautiful areas close by: the Biesbosch and the historic city center. On the other hand, there is the proximity of the industrial area, including a waste incineration (which supplies heat), a WWTP, a chemical factory and a penitentiary. After the poison land affairs, an environmental scandal around Chemours, the district is now affected by the departure of facilities. This is due to a smaller range of shops, lower frequency of public transport and the departure of the general practice, which is also at the expense of meeting places and the liveliness in the neighborhood. There are also no sports grounds on De Staart. As a result, the quality of life in the neighborhood continues to deteriorate, which makes residents feel mistaken. Interviews with residents in the AD of 2018 show the sentiment that hangs around the neighborhood. This (negative) sentiment has in turn led to the fact that the development of house prices over the past few years has lagged far behind other districts. All these factors together mean that the spatial development of De Staart is currently locked down.

 

In response to the decline in quality of life, social organizations, entrepreneurs and residents started the initiative 'De Staart is worth it' in 2018 to build a good name for De Staart. But a good name alone is not enough to address the structural problems of the district. That is why the municipality of Dordrecht approached the International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam (IABR) a few years ago to solve the problems of De Staart as support ‘De Staart is worth it’.


The IABR is a cultural and knowledge institution with the aim of using the power of imagination and design for real change. The IABR does this (among other things) by bringing together important disciplines and sectors to conduct result-oriented design research into the city of tomorrow. To this end, the IABR and the municipality jointly set up the IABR–Atelier Dordrecht in June 2019 . This is a temporary free space, open environment and work trajectory in which it is possible to look at one's own task from a new perspective, to tap into new solutions and to work on concrete design proposals. For this Atelier, the perspective 'Water (safety) as leverage' has been put forward.


By looking at the area from this perspective, a new perception of De Staart gradually emerged, namely: as a safe place to evacuate in the event of an imminent flood and as an attractive location where sustainable area development can provide an optimal solution for (part of) the construction task.

 

Dordrecht is preparing for future floods with a strategy based on the concept of multi-layer safety (dikes (layer 1), spatial measures (layer 2) and crisis management (layer 3)). The authors are: municipality of Dordrecht, water board Hollandse Delta, Provincie Zuid-Holland, Veiligheidsregio Zuid-Holland Zuid and the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management. This strategy led to a Water Safety Plan. In the exceptional scenario that the city threatens to flood, the current advice in this plan is to flee to the attic. Research commissioned by the project 'Water and Evacuation' shows that fleeing to the attic leads to a large and complex rescue task. 

 

 

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IABR–Atelier Dordrecht: De Staart
IABR–Atelier Dordrecht: De Staart
IABR–Atelier Dordrecht: De Staart
IABR–Atelier Dordrecht: De Staart
IABR–Atelier Dordrecht: De Staart

Dordrecht needs a safe place—nearby—where residents can evacuate. De Staart can function as a safe place because of its relatively high location, of an average NAP +3 meters. The municipality asked designers in the IABR-Atelier what the possibilities are with for temporarily housing 60,000 people. It turned out to be useful to also look at the housing need for Dordrecht, which asks for 10,000 new homes to be built. This is (useful) because in the current situation about 27,000 of the 60,000 people would have to take shelter in the open air on the Staart.

 

The parts of De Staart that are not used for industry are easily developable and offer room for experimentation and a diverse urban interpretation. However, in the current situation, De Staart is isolated and needs a quality boost. The need for a safe place in the event of a flood can therefore serve as a lever for sustainable area development, with attention to the unique location of the area and the possibilities that this offers.

 

The water safety as a leverage approach requires flexible space at De Staart at all times in order to be able to quickly realize the extra square meters required for peak collection during a disaster. By including space needed for the reception of evacuees and other emergency facilities in the design process, a city can be created where people not only live, but where a lot of space can also be made for recreation, education and other public facilities.

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De Staart, West 8: IABR–Atelier Dordrecht

De Staart, West 8: IABR–Atelier Dordrecht

The case of De Staart in Dordrecht is used withing RDD as example how – through – design floodrisk management and urban development can be brought together.   De Staart is located outside the dikes but due to its industrial function it was raised relatively high. It is besides an industrial area also residential, which is partly on a former poison belt. This creates an ambivalent living environment. On the one hand, it is a district with lots of nature and beautiful areas close by: the Biesbosch and the historic city center. On the other hand, there is the proximity of the industrial area, including a waste incineration (which supplies heat), a WWTP, a chemical factory and a penitentiary. After… Read More
Spatial Framework as a Basis

Spatial Framework as a Basis

Adriaan Geuze as studio master and the team of West 8 made the spatial framework for De Staart as a basis for possible future developments. The Framework contains substantive principles, whereby the landscape quality of the area determines the structure. Use was made of the unique position between the Wantij and the Beneden Merwede, and of the transition from urban area to the ecological main structure in the Biesbosch area.   Within the spatial framework, an urban exploration was made with which the requested program was examined in mass volume. A total of 1.3 million m² of gross floor area of buildings is needed for 7,000 extra homes, where 14,000 people can find shelter. To preserve the human scale, a… Read More
Design Study Masterclasses

Design Study Masterclasses

As a part of the Design Study, ReDesigning Deltas organized four masterclasses, to give participants specialist knowledge input for their challenge. Topics included: the Dutch delta, international deltas, delta governance and delta economy. In the Dutch Delta, Deltares-specialists presented the state of the art regarding adaptation pathways, scalability, transport-corridor(s) and climate proof infrastructure, draught, subsidence, flood risk management, but also on the regional challenges of Limburg, Southwestern Delta, mouth of the Rhine-Meuse rivers and Limburg. The Dutch Delta Masterclass informed the societal challenges, that are the point of departure for sustainable spatial transformation envisioned by the design-teams in the Design Study. The societal challenges are organized in environmental (climate and biodiversity) and socio-economic drivers (housing, energy transition and new economy),… Read More
Sandpit Design Study

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The Sandpit is a methodology that is used to create a body of knowledge around a challenge from the participants. It is a methodology that is also used in interdisciplinary design workshops to be able to integrate and utilize knowledge of different nature because of the different disciplines. In the two-day ‘Sandpit’, the participants from engineering, urban design and landscape architecture firms are working together in defining the challenges and needs in the five geographical ‘challenges’ that represent different parts of the Dutch (delta) territory in the study. Starting in (first disciplinary) groups to discuss these challenges, the practical experience from professionals in the field is gathered and used to build a preliminary understanding of the design-challenge(s) at hand, and… Read More
Casco Concept and Dutch Layers Approach, H+N+S Landscape Architects

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The Synthesis line of ReDesigning Deltas is focused on integration and academic consolidation of the other lines of enquiry in the program, such as the Joint Fact Finding and the Design Study, to prepare an international, 5-year research program. To do so, the Synergy line describes the outcomes of deliverables for their scope and validity, but also analyzes and develops methods. H+N+S Landscape Architects has been commissioned to review the instruments of the Dutch Layers approach (a planning instrument) and the Casco Model (an instrumental elaboration of the Layers Approach).   Although both have become mainstream over the last decades, the question remains how they can be made instrumental for design. H+N+S analyzed the instruments (that originated from their offices)… Read More

About

Unsustainable growth (urbanization) and shifting time horizons in delta management increase the urgency of the environmental crisis in deltas. Besides, an opportunity for a ‘reset’ arises because of the near sell-by date current infrastructure systems (mature deltas) and the vast investments planned in the coming decades (emerging deltas). It is essential to identify and understand pathways to a sustainable and inclusive delta in which transformations are likely necessary. Unfortunately, the current practice of ‘delta-management’ falls short, as it lacks integration and design. Collective inter-disciplinary knowledge production is required to develop these (transformation) pathways, and the success of collective knowledge production does require a design-based approach, in which different perspectives are recognized and joint new perspectives are developed. Therefore, we initiated an ambitious, inter-disciplinary and multi-annual project which places design and design-based research at the heart to deliver these outcomes. We propose to use the Delft Approach as a basis on which to build in the process of Redesigning Deltas, in which finding consensus (joint fact finding), making visions, and designing their material, ecological and temporal manifestation in space (design-thinking) help to explore, envision, and project new futures, to evoke and enable change.

The main goal of this project is to build the knowledge and collective commitment in the delta community* to support the shift in paradigm where water (security & safety) management is integrated into planning and design and vice versa in which the role of design and design-based research is revisited and strengthened.
The project will evoke systemic change on two levels:
1. Strategy: transformability (persistence – fragments vs. permanence – main structure)
2. Tactics: flexibility (ability to respond, contingency), continuous learning, adaptability, and innovation (ability to change) and will deliver as concrete outputs pathways to sustainable deltas (national and international context).